Archive for blockchain category

The blockchain is coming… to the micropayments industry you didn’t think of.

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Every time you open a website, go to Facebook or watch a YouTube video, there’s a transfer of value happening in the background.

A micropayment takes place – advertisers (they pay money to get your attention), publishers (they create content that you want to consume) and the ad platforms (they manage the relationship between the previous two).

What’s being traded is your attention. All these website banners, video ads on YouTube or sponsored stories on Facebook cost a microscopic amount of money per ‘unit of attention’ (a pageview). In total they create a multi-billion dollar business and form a lifeblood of the global online economy.

When people talk about the potential of the blockchain technology, they often mention banks as the ultimate middlemen to be disrupted. But behind our everyday browsing there is this invisible and highly sophisticated ad marketplace. Attention is money and the middlemen of ‘attention trading’ are the online advertising giants – Facebook, Google, Yahoo and many other advertising platforms.

Just pause for a while and consider how many micro-transactions you’ve triggered today, just because of your own browsing, app downloads or social networking. To use a financial world analogy – online advertising giants are clearing houses for micro-transactions between ‘attention creators’ (publishers, app developers) and ‘attention buyers’ (advertisers).

All these ‘money-for-attention’ exchanges take place on the internal, closed and proprietary ledgers of Google and Facebook allowing these companies to generate enormous amount of value by operating these ledgers.

With the blockchain protocols and technologies like Bitcoin, Ethereum, Counterparty or Open Transactions, we’ll be soon able to redesign this model and slowly eliminate the middlemen, allowing for a truly peer-2-peer, ‘attention exchange’ marketplace. This will put creators and curators back in the driver’s seat and enable a whole new range of business models based on content production and curation.

Think about investing in someone’s blog or even a comment. Being paid for sharing stuff that others find relevant or valuable. Becoming a shareholder in someone’s Instagram feed. Or even social network cooperatives where proceeds from ads are redistributed directly to the top contributors on the network. Possibilities are infinite here.

It’s a mind blowing stuff and there are teams already working on redesigning the value flows in social networks. Just look at the LTBcoin project pioneered by Adam B. Levine from the Let’s Talk Bitcoin Network.

To me the blockchain is not about the grocery store payments or even online ecommerce. The Mastercard debit card works just fine there and habits change slowly.

I expect the ‘blockchain’s killer app’ will emerge from the ‘attention economy’ and social networks where millions of users create and curate content every day. And it will happen sooner than we all expect.

Why the next Facebook will be owned by YOU (hint: it’s because of Bitcoin)

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The next huge application of Bitcoin and cryptographic protocols is ‘distributed micro-ownership’, which will soon enable new forms of decentralised organisations that were not possible in the past. This will turn online business models on their head – it will be less about the advertisers and more about users becoming shareholders. It’s not my goal to give you a detailed explanation of the Bitcoin protocol.
If you’re new to Bitcoin and would like to spend just twenty minutes trying to understand it, watch this video by Andreas Antonopoulos, and he’ll give you the best overview of Bitcoin possible in such a short time frame.

Of course, nothing beats the original Bitcoin white paper, but it might be too complex for someone new to the technology.


The majority of discussions about Bitcoin revolve around it’s speculative and currency aspects. ‘Wow! It went up to 1.2 k and then plummeted to 600 dollars’. It’s exciting to watch – especially if you have invested – but at the same time, it doesn’t matter.

Although I’m a huge fan of Bitcoin technology, I’m not really sure it’s the future currency everyone will use shopping at the local grocery store. As Andreas Antonopoulos says, the ‘currency is just the first app’.

Do you remember the first iPhone? It dropped calls, and in many ways its voice call experience was inferior to the existing Nokia feature phone alternatives.

The real revolution came with apps built on top of iOS, which had previously been unimaginable.


The existing models of IPO funding and stock ownership (owned by few, used by many) are more aligned with the needs of nineteenth-century railway companies than twenty-first-century information companies.

So what’s the difference between major industrial-age railway networks and information-age social networks.

A passenger can be alone on a train and still get the value of getting from A to B. It’s the technology itself that delivers value to the passenger. In fact, passengers have no interest in promoting the railway to others, as their experience could be diminished (no free seats, etc.).

On the other hand, a Facebook user gets tremendous value from others being on the same network (Metcalfe’s Law) – on Facebook it’s the users who create value for each other by posting, sharing, commenting, etc. The other users are the only reason the network has value.


If you use any type of modern social network (Facebook, Google+, YouTube, etc.), you are the product – your attention is sold to the advertisers in the form of advertising, and in return you get the permission to create and receive value from others on the same platform.

Also, you probably don’t own any shares in the platform you use. The stock is owned by the founders, some wealthy investors and large institutions, but only a few of the actual users.

For the shareholders, maximising profit means maximising the amount of advertising. For the users, it often means the reverse (with exceptions such as Search and other well-targeted ads).

So, even though the users create all the value on the social network, they don’t have any form of participation in it.

Technologies like Bitcoin have suddenly allowed the design of ‘distributed ownership’ systems (e.g. Kickstarter), but with the difference that you don’t fund a cool, shiny gadget, but actually become a stakeholder in a company and participate in its future profits.

Why is this so important? Because it aligns the interests of the owners with the interests of the users.

When you buy a Bitcoin, you not only own a unit of currency but also become a shareholder in a company whose value depends solely on the number of users participating.


The experiment has already started. Bitcoin itself is a kind of a social network. Bitcoin had it’s ‘IPO’, ‘hired’ developers and generated a ton of free PR, and now it’s ‘hiring’ the marketing people.

People promote it because it’s in their best interests to do so. Bitcoin is not owned by anyone, but at the same time it’s owned by everybody.

And Bitcoin rewards its users proportionally to the investment/risk they take in supporting the network.

Compare that to the fundamentally extractive model of Facebook, where value is transferred from users to a small group of shareholders.

But Bitcoin is only the first step – there other innovations in the making, such as the Mastercoin protocol and the Decentralized Autonomous Companies being developed by Invictus Innovations.

If you haven’t heard about them, they might sound too geeky for you. That’s fine – in the 1990s, the Web was too geeky for most of us, too.

These companies are paving the way for ‘micro-ownership’ and the funding of future startups, and revolutionising the stock market in the same way Twitter revolutionised the publishing industry.

Soon you will be able to come up with a cool concept and go ‘public’, raise capital from all over the world and, if your idea is good, effectively become a million-dollar company in a matter of minutes.

Or if you just want to invest $100, $10 or even just $1, you’ll be able to do so with a single click.

That’s why I’m pretty sure that the next Facebook will be owned by you.

Happy 2014!